Immune responses in malignant gliomas of brain: literature review


  • Nikolay Lisianyi Romodanov Neurosurgery Institute, Kiev, Ukraine
  • A. Rybahlchenko Romodanov Neurosurgery Institute, Kiev, Ukraine



local immune responses, tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and macrophages, life expectancy


Recent publications on the immune reactions that occur in malignant brain gliomas were analyzed. The difference of immune cells — lymphocytes and macrophages accumulation in tumor tissue was shown; data on phenotypic characteristics of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), their antitumor activity and reasons for their varying infiltration were given. Data on T-regulating lymphocytes in tissue with suppressor properties were presented.

The question about TILs importance for tumors growth and their prognostic significance was discusses. The opinion that TILs can both stimulate tumor growth and suppress it was expressed.


Лисяный Н.И. Изменение иммунных реакций при различных видах глиом / Н.И. Лисяный // Глиомы головного мозга; под ред. Ю.А. Зозули. — К.: УІПК «ЕксОб», 2007. — С.236–252.

Бережная Н.М. Иммунология злокачественного роста / Н.М. Бережная, В.Ф. Чехун — К.: Наук. думка, 2005. — 791 с.

Exciting new advances in neuro-oncology: the avenue to a cure for malignant glioma / E.G. Van Meir, C.G. Yadjipanayis, A.D. Norden [et al.] // CA Cancer J. Clin. — 2010. — V.60 — P.166–193.

Parney I.F. Flow cytometry and in vitro analysis of human glioma-associated macrophages. Laboratory Investigation / I.F. Parney, J.S. Waldron, A.T. Parsa // J. Neurosurg. — 2009. — V.110. — P.572–582.

Normal human monocytes exposed to glioma cells acquire myeloid-derived suppressor cell-like properties / J.C. Rodrigues, G.C. Gonzalez, L. Zhang [et al.] // Neuro Oncol. — 2010. — V.12. — P.351–365.

Prognostic value of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes in the vertical growth phase of primary cutaneous melanoma / C.G. Clemente, M.C. Mihm Jr., R. Bufalino [et al.] // Cancer. — 1996. — V.77. — P.1303–1310.

Intraepithelial CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and a high CD8+/regulatory T-cell ratio are associated with favorable prognosis in ovarian cancer / E. Sato, S.H. Olson, J. Ahn [et al.] // Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. — 2005. — V.102. — P.18538–18543.

Effector memory T-cells, early metastasis, and survival in colorectal cancer / F. Pags, A. Berger, M.N. Camus [et al.] // Engl. J. Med. — 2005. — V.353. — P.2654–2666.

Type, density, and location of immune cells within human colorectal tumors predict clinical outcome / J. Galon, A. Costes, F. Sanchez-Cabo [et al.] // Science. — 2006. — V.313. — P.1960–1964.

Dunn G.P. Focus on TILs: Prognostic significance of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes in human glioma / G.P. Dunn, I.F. Dunn, W.T. Curry // Cancer Immun. — 2007. — V.7 — P.12.

Bertrand I. Etudes des reactions vasculaires dans les astrocytomes / I. Bertrand, H. Mannen // Rev. Neurol. (Paris). — 1960. — V.102. — P.3–19.

Ridley A. Lymphocytic infiltration in gliomas: Evidence of possible host resistance / A. Ridley, J.B. Cavanagh // Brain. — 1971. — V.94 — P.117–124.

Takeuchi J. Perivascular lymphocytic cuffing in astrocytomas / J. Takeuchi, R.O. Barnard // Acta Neuropathol. (Berl.). — 1976. — V.35. — P.265–271.

Mononuclear lymphoid populations infiltrating the microenvironment of primary CNS tumors. Characterization of cell subsets with monoclonal antibodies / R.I. Von Hanwehr, F.M. Hofman, C.R.Taylor[et al.] // J. Neurosurg. — 1984. — V.60 — P.1138–1147.

Hitchcock C.S. Mononuclear cell infiltration in central portions of human astrocytomas / E.R. Hitchcock, C.S. Morris // J. Neurosurg. — 1988. — V.68. — P.432–437.

Characterization of lymphoid cells isolated from human gliomas / J.P. Farmer, J.P. Antel, M. Freedman [et al.] // J. Neurosurg. — 1989. — V.71. — P.528–533.

Stevens A. Inflammatory infiltrates and natural killer cell presence in human brain tumors / A. Stevens, I. Kloter, W. Roggendorf // Cancer. — 1988. — V.61. — P.738–743.

Immunohistochemical analysis of infiltrating lymphocytes in central nervous system tumors / J.T. Paine, H. Handa, T. Yamasaki [et al.] // Neurosurgery. — 1986. — V.18. — P.766–772.

Immunohistochemical analysis of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and major histocompatibility antigens in human gliomas and metastatic brain tumors / T. Saito, R. Tanaka,S. Yoshida[et al.] // Surg. Neurol. — 1988. — V.29. — P.435–442.

Detection of lymphocytes in malignant gliomas by monoclonal antibodies / K. Yasuda, T. Alderson, J. Phillips [et al.] // J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiat. — 1983. — V.46. — P.734–737.

Phillips J.P. Lymphoreticular cells in human brain tumours and in normal brain / J.P. Phillips, O. Eremin, J.R.Anderson// Br. J. Cancer. — 1982. — V.45. — P.61–69.

Intratumoral T cell subset ratios and Fas ligand expression on brain tumor endothelium / J.S. Yu, P.K. Lee, M. Ehtesham [et al.] // J. Neurooncol. — 2003. — V.64. — P.55–61.

Kuppner M.C. Immunohistological and functional analyses of lymphoid infiltrates in human glioblastomas / M.C. Kuppner, M.F. Hamou, N. de Tribolet // Cancer Res. — 1988. — V.48. — P.6926–6932.

Antitumor activity and surface phenotypes of human glioma-infiltrating lymphocytes after in vitro expansion in the presence of interleukin 2 / Y. Sawamura, M. Hosokawa, M.C. Kuppner [et al.] // Cancer Res. — 1989. — V.49. — P.1843–1849.

El Andaloussi A. An increase in CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes of human glioblastoma multiforme / A. El Andaloussi, M.S. Lesniak // Neuro Oncol. — 2006. — V.8. — P.234–243.

Miyara M. Natural regulatory T cells: Mechanisms of suppression / M. Miyara,S. Sakaguchi// Trends Mol. Med. — 2007. — V.13. — P.108–116.

The role of human glioma-infiltrating microglia/macrophages in mediating antitumor immune responses / S.F. Hussain, D. Yang, D. Suki [et al.] // Neuro Oncol. — 2006. — V.8. — P.261–279.

Regulatory CD4(+) CD25(+) T cells in tumors from patients with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer and late-stage ovarian cancer / E.Y. Woo, C.S. Chu, T.J. Goletz [et al.] // Cancer Res. — 2001. — V.61. — P.4766–4772.

Macrophages in experimental and human brain tumors. Part 1. Studies of the macrophage content of experimental rat brain tumors of varying immunogenicity / R.A. Morantz, G.W. Wood, M. Foster [et al.] // J. Neurosurg. — 1979. — V.50. — P.298–304.

Immunohistological study of mononuclear cell infiltrate in malignant gliomas / M.L. Rossi, J.T. Hughes, M.M. Esiri [et al.] // Acta Neuropathol. (Berl.). — 1987. — V.74. — P.269–277.

Distribution and characterization of microglia/macrophages in human brain tumors /W. Roggendorf, S. Strupp, W. Paulus // Acta Neuropathol. (Berl.). — 1996. — V.92. — P.288–293.

Macrophage infiltration and heme oxygenase-1 expression correlate with angiogenesis in human gliomas / A. Nishie, M. Ono, T. Shono [et al.] // Clin. Cancer Res. — 1999. — V.5. — P.1107–1113.

Monocyte subpopulations in human gliomas: Expression of Fc and complement receptors and correlation with tumor proliferation / T. Morimura, C. Neuchrist, K. Kitz [et al.] // Acta Neuropathol. (Berl.). — 1990. — V.80. — P.287–294.

Innate immune functions of microglia isolated from human glioma patients / S.F. Hussain, D. Yang, D. Suki [et al.] // J. Transl. Med. — 2006. — V.4. — P.15.

Relationship of lymphocyte invasion and survival of brain tumor patients / W.H. Brooks, W.R. Markesbery, G.D. Gupta [et al.] // Ann. Neurol. — 1978. — V.4. — P.219–224.

Lymphocytic infiltrates in primary glioblastomas and recidivous gliomas. Incidence, fate, and relevance to prognosis in 228 operated cases / L. Palma, N. Di Lorenzo, B. Guidetti // J. Neurosurg. — 1978. — V.49. — P.854–861.

Mononuclear infiltrates in human intracranial tumors as a prognostic factor. Influence of preoperative steroid treatment. I. Glioblastoma / D.K. Bker, R. Kalff, F. Gullotta [et al.] // Clin. Neuropathol. — 1984. — V.3. — P.143–147.

Analysis of some factors effecting survival in malignant gliomas / D. Schiffer, D. Cavicchioli, M.T. Giordana [et al.] // Tumori. — 1979. — V.65. — P.119–125.

The mononuclear cell infiltrate compared with survival in high-grade astrocytomas / M.L. Rossi, N.R. Jones, E. Candy [et al.] // Acta Neuropathol. (Berl.). — 1989. — V.78. — P.189–193.

Sаfdari H. Histological correlations with survival in malignant gliomas / H. Safdari, F.H. Hochberg, E.P. Richardson Jr. // Acta Neurochir. (Wien.). — 1979. — V.28, suppl. — P.485–488.

Safdari H. Prognostic value of round cell (lymphocyte) infiltration in malignant gliomas / H. Safdari, F.H. Hochberg, E.P. Richardson Jr. // Surg. Neurol. — 1985. — V.23. — P.221–226.

Pilot study of local autologous tumor infiltrating lymphocytes for the treatment of recurrent malignant gliomas / K.B. Quattrocchi, C.H. Miller, S. Cush [et al.] // J. Neurooncol. — 1999. — V.45. — P.141–157.

Vaccination of malignant glioma patients with peptide-pulsed dendritic cells elicits systemic cytotoxicity and intracranial T-cell infiltration / J.S. Yu, C.J. Wheeler, P.M. Zeltzer [et al.] // Cancer Res. — 2001. — V.61. — P.842–847.

Vaccination with tumor lysate-pulsed dendritic cells elicits antigen-specific, cytotoxic T-cells in patients with malignant glioma / J.S. Yu, G. Liu, H. Ying [et al.] // Cancer Res. — 2004. — V.64. — P.4973–4979.

Clinical evaluation of dendritic cell vaccination for patients with recurrent glioma: Results of a clinical phase I/II trial / R. Yamanaka, J. Homma, N. Yajima [et al.] // Clin. Cancer Res. — 2005. — V.11. — P.4160–4167.



How to Cite

Lisianyi, N., & Rybahlchenko, A. (2011). Immune responses in malignant gliomas of brain: literature review. Ukrainian Neurosurgical Journal, (4), 4–9.



Review articles