Intracranial aneurysms treatment using new generation FRED X flow diverters with antithrombotic coating and preoperative PreSize Neurovascular software simulation: literature review and own clinical observations analysis
Keywords:intracranial aneurysm, internal carotid artery, flow diverter, FRED X, PreSize, preoperative virtual modeling, sizing, antithrombogenic coating, antithrombotic surface
Objective: Evaluate the possibilities of treating giant intracranial aneurysms and complex anatomy aneurysms by implanting new generation of FRED X flow diverters (MicroVention, USA) with antithrombogenic surface subject to preoperative virtual modeling and sizing with PreSize Neurovascular software (Oxford Heartbeat Ltd, Great Britain).
Materials and Methods. FRED X flow diverters with antithrombogenic surface were implanted in 7 patients with giant cerebral aneurysms and complex anatomy aneurysms in the Endovascular Center at Mechnikov Dnipropetrovsk Regional Clinical Hospital, Dnipro, within two months (May 2, 2023 to June 27, 2023). Our study group consisted of 4 (57.1%) female patients and 3 (42.9%) male patients (p=1.0). The average age was 50.4±13.7. 4 patients had single intracranial aneurysms and 3 patients had multiple aneurysms. 2 patients had 2 aneurysms and 1 patient had 4 aneurysms. 3 patients had a hemorrhagic clinical course of the disease (spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage in the history), 3 patients had asymptomatic aneurysms, and 1 patient had a pseudotumorous aneurysm.
Results. All 7 patients underwent the ICA aneurysm(s) surgery. 3 patients had a flow diverter implanted at the level of multiple aneurysms (in 2 patients, 2 aneurysms; in 1 patient, 3 aneurysms). 2 patients, in addition to flow diverter implantation, underwent coil aneurysms embolization (using jailing technique). In all patients, the flow diverter was implanted under dual (ticagrelor and acetylsalicylic acid) antiplatelet therapy. 3 patients with a history of subarachnoid aneurysmal hemorrhage received a loading dose of dual antiplatelet therapy immediately before the flow diverter implantation. In one patient with a complex closed siphon shape, balloon angioplasty was required to optimize flow diverter opening to the arterial wall. In all other 6 patients, the flow diverters were opened in a controlled manner with a Push & Pull technique variant: Load/Tension Unsheath technique.
Conclusions: In the endovascular treatment of giant and complex aneurysms, the use of new generation FRED X flow diverters (MicroVention, USA) with antithrombogenic coating subject to proper diverters sizing with PreSize Neurovascular software does not cause technical difficulties and is controlled.
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