Aneurysmal bone cyst of dorsal spine presenting with paraparesis in a pediatric patient: a case report
Keywords:aneurysmal bone cyst, dorsal spine, pediatric patient
Introduction: Aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) are rare benign tumours of spine. They most commonly presents with backache. However neurological deficit in spinal ABCs are not uncommon. Magnetic resonance imaging of ABC may sometimes be confused with osteosarcoma or Giant cell tumours. Treatment options are varied but complete excision of tumour with spine stabilisation should be the goal.
Clinical case: Here we presented the case of a 13 year old girl presenting with spastic paraparesis and bladder incontinence with MRI dorsal spine suggestive of an expansile lesion of D5 body. She underwent subtotal corpectomy with fixation of spine . Biopsy was suggestive of aneurysmal bone cyst. Post operative neurological outcome was excellent and followup scans over 2 year period suggest complete remission.
Discussion: ABC are non neoplastic expansile bone lesion consisting of blood filled spaces separated by connective tissue septa of bony trabeculation and osteoclastic giant cells. Similar to our case it is seen more commonly in young females. Lumbar spine has higher incidence of ABC as compared to dorsal and cervical spine. Most common presentation is backache. Surgical options for ABC include intralesional curettage, en bloc resection followed by fixation. Vertebroplasty is also a treatment option to reinforce spinal stability. Post operative radiotherapy also can be considered in partially resected cases. Although ABC have high recurrence rate of 10-44% which has been reported with 2 years following surgery. However our patients continue to have no radiological evidence of recurrence on 2 year follow up.
Conclusion: ABCs are benign tumour which may present with neurological deficit. Although treatment of ABC remains controversial but early surgery with complete removal of tumour in patients with neurological deficit provides excellent recovery. However due to high recurrence rate regular follow up is necessary.
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