Arnold-Chiari Malformation: classification, etiology and pathogenesis, the course of disease, diagnostics: literature review

Lyudmila Dzyak, Mykola Zorin, V. Egorov, Yuri Cherednychenko

Abstract


The review of works devoted to Arnold-Chiari malformation (ACM) is carried out. Problems of classification, related pathology and the degree of it correlation with the malformation, theory of etiology and pathogenesis, the course of disease are considered. ACM I type is accompanied by syrinx at 60-70% of cases, ACM II and ACM III types – at 30-75%. Research, demonstrating that syrinx is filled from subarachnoid space through microchannels in substance of spinal cord, but not from the fourth ventricle, is observed. Malformation of the second type is accompanied by lumbosacral meningocele, and that of the third type – by cervical myelomeningocele or occipital encephalocele at 100% cases. On the other hand, inborn meningocele enables us to think about associated ACM of the second type. Magnetic resonance tomography is the method, which solved the problem of diagnostics of ACM. Nevertheless we haven’t common criteria of diagnostics of ACM till now.


Keywords


Arnold-Chiari malformation; the posterior cranial fossa; syringomyelia

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