Treatment of intraventricular hemorrhage in infants
Keywords:intraventricular hemorrhage, germinal matrix, posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus, neuroendoscopic lavage
Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is a disorder of the central nervous system, which is most frequently diagnosed in newborns. The disorder occurrence and development are related to the gestation age and weight of a newborn. IVH arises in 30 % of newborns with weight under 1500 g and develops on the 2nd — 3rd day after birth. Fifty-five percent of newborns present a neurological deficit following IVH, 30 % of patients with IVH have a permanent disability in early childhood and 70 % — at a different age. Premature newborns with IVH of III–IV grade have a high risk of developing posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus (PHH), cerebral palsy and mental disturbances. Literature review and analysis of the world major medical databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, PubMed) of etiology, pathogenesis, treatment of IVH in infants illustrate advantages and limitations of the various methods for the control of intracranial hypertension associated with IVH and PHH. Gold standard and method of permanent control of intracranial hypertension — ventriculoperitoneal shunting frequently requires temporary control of the intracranial pressure and has limitations in this category of patients. Considering that there is no the only correct way of treatment of IVH and PHH, and recognizing disadvantages for each method of temporary and permanent draining of the CSF, the interventions should focus on the early clearing of the CSF pathways. Among proposed techniques, neuroendoscopic lavage is worthy of special attention, because it is associated with a lower rate of infectious complications and need in subsequent neurosurgical interventions according to the research results. Considering the pathogenesis of PHH development and treatment results, techniques of neuroendoscopic lavage need to be further researched and implemented in the list of neurosurgical procedures for the children with IVH in Ukraine.
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